The End of Labor: How to Protect Workers From the Rise of Robots
NOAH SMITH

Technology used to make us better at our jobs. Now it’s making many of us obsolete, as the share of income going to workers is crashing, all over the world. What do we do now?

Here’s a scene that will be familiar to anyone who’s ever taken an introductory economics course. The professor has just finished explaining that in economics, “efficiency” means that there are no possible gains from trade. Then some loudmouth kid in the back raises his hand and asks: “Wait, so if one person has everything, and everyone else has nothing and just dies, is that an ‘efficient’ outcome?” The professor, looking a little chagrined, responds: “Well, yes, it is.” And the whole class rolls their eyes and thinks: Economists.

For most of modern history, inequality has been a manageable problem. The reason is that no matter how unequal things get, most people are born with something valuable: the ability to work, to learn, and to earn money. In economist-ese, people are born with an “endowment of human capital.” It’s just not possible for one person to have everything, as in the nightmare example in Econ 101.

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